The special characteristic of mSTARS is its modularity. Depending on the customer's request, a relatively simple basic axle can be extended to an electric or a standard powertrain module and/or an AKC rear-axle steering system. Only minor modifications to the car body are required for installing the system into vehicles in lieu of the hitherto existing, conventional axles. The number of platform variants can therewith be reduced and at the same time the possibilities widely extended modularly. Additional to the gain in flexibility, this concept significantly reduces development costs for car manufacturers because ZF completely takes over the individual fine tuning of the internal interfaces in the axle toolkit. Furthermore, mSTARS axle scores highly due to its driving dynamics and safety. Both conform to the complex conventional multilink suspensions' standard of compact premium and sports vehicles – and that's even in the basic version. By means of the AKC active rear-axle steering system that can likewise be combined with all modular axle configurations just as the active damping systems, ZF increases the agility, the comfort and the stability. Advanced assistance systems can also regulate better, more safely and more comfortably because the rear wheels are actively involved in the steering.