A single dummy that precisely imitates the locomotor system of adult humans in every direction does not (yet) exist. However, there are specialists for every possible case.
Hybrid: The name has its origins in the late 1960s. Using the two available dummy types (VIP-50 and Sierra Sam), General Motors developed a new dummy that could meet the company’s proprietary needs. Hybrid dummies are primarily designed for frontal impact.
SID: The abbreviation stands for Side Impact Dummy, which also describes its preferred field of application. With its mechanical structure, it imitates human movements in lateral collisions (load cases) and is designed to do so as accurately as possible. Developed around 1980, this dummy’s missing forearms make it unmistakable.
BioRID: The so-called Biofidelic Rear Impact Dummy was created in the 1990s. It is based on research conducted by the Swedish Chalmers University together with car manufacturers Saab and Volvo. In crashes, it behaves in a more human-like manner than the Hybrid III, that is, it exhibits more biological fidelity. This is primarily due to the new spine, which is more flexible and authentic. BioRID is still recommended today, especially for rear impact tests.
CRABI: The name is derived from Child Restraint/Air Bag Interaction. It describes a group of three toddler dummies. These dummies imitate children at the ages of 6, 12, and 18 months in terms of size, weight (50th percentile in each case) and flexibility. It is used to test child restraint systems in all impact directions as well as with and without airbag deployment.
THOR: The Test Device for Human Occupant Restraint is the latest, most human-like dummy. It is the successor to the Hybrid III 50th Percentile Male. It greatly surpasses the previous model in terms of spinal and pelvic kinematics and facial sensors. The measuring equipment is not only more extensive, but also records much more precisely. In the Euro NCAP, THOR will be used from 2020 for a new frontal crash test, the MPDB (Mobile Progressive Deformable Barrier) test: this test also evaluates how occupants interact with fellow passengers involved in an accident.