It was partly the logical next step in my career and partly coincidence. I had studied mechanical engineering and manufacturing technology in the 1970s, when robotics became a big topic for the first time. I worked as a project developer at IBM for a few years and wanted to set up my own manufacturing innovation company. One of our first customers had a problem with their automated guided vehicles, short AGVs. Back then, AGVs would simply follow a wire in the ground – a very inflexible system that was prone to fail as soon as the vehicle moved just a few centimeters off the wire. So we came up with a better solution: Instead of a old-school vehicle on a smart infrastructure, we would build a smart vehicle that would navigate on a old-school infrastructure – such as a grid, a pattern in or on the ground. This gives you the flexibility to easily set up new routes or to correct your course at any point. We called the system FROG, free ranging on grid, and had it patented in 1985. As long as we had sensors for it, anything could serve as a grid. For example, Apple used a FROG system that was based on their black and white checkered floor tiles.