ZF TRW’s research and production facilities are located within the catchment area of several highly respected universities: Michigan State University in East Lansing, the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor, and Wayne State University in Detroit. They all top the national league tables for engineering, and all qualify as Research 1 institutions – the highest class of research-driven universities. Each of these universities is carrying out applied research work that is expected to contribute to the development of self-driving vehicles. A project at Wayne State University is currently investigating how much communication is required between vehicles in order for cars to drive safely in urban traffic – the researchers have been using cars belonging to the campus police force as test vehicles. Over a period of years, extensive trials in the area around Northville and Ann Arbor have involved 3,000 cars capable of communicating with the transport infrastructure and with each other – another key aspect of automated driving.